Italy

   Beginning with the tetrarchy (q.v.), the political importance of Rome (q.v.) and of Italy declined with the establishment of new imperial residences outside Rome (e.g., Maximian [q.v.] ruled from Milan [q.v.]). This process increased with the foundation of Constantinople (q.v.) in 330, and with the creation of eastern and western co-emperors later in the fourth century. Milan and, after 402, Ravenna (q.v.), were favored residences of the western emperors (q.v.). Invasion and conquest added to Italy's decline. Incursions by Alaric's Visigoths (qq.v.) culminated in their sack of Rome in 410. Italy suffered further depredation by the Vandals (q.v.), who again sacked Rome in 455. The overthrow of Romulus Augustulus (q.v.) in 476 and the conquest of Ravenna by the Ostrogoths (q.v.) in 493 created an Ostrogothic state. Justinian I (q.v.) reconquered Italy from the Ostrogoths in a long war that lasted from 535-562. What resulted was the devastation of Milan (q.v.), as well as the depopulation of Rome (q.v.) and of much of Italy. During the midst of this war, a force of Franks and Alemanni (qq.v) invaded Italy in 553-554; it was annihilated by Narses (q.v.). Not long after the war's conclusion, Justinian I's victory was overturned by the Lombard (q.v.) invasion of Italy in 568. Except for Ravenna and Venice (q.v.) in the north, Byzantium (q.v.) was relegated to southern Italy. After 568, Rome began to fend for itself under the leadership of the papacy (q.v.), while Byzantine possessions were reorganized as the Exarchate (q.v.) of Ravenna. However, in 751 the Lombards captured Ravenna, and not long after (in 787) northern Italy was conquered by Charlemagne (q.v.). Byzantine possessions in southern Italy were frequently endangered by Arab (q.v.) raids and Lombard revolts that required occasional military intervention, e.g., by Basil I, by katepano Basil Boiannes, and George Maniakes (qq.v.). However, it was the Norman (q.v.) expansion in southern Italy, beginning in 1016 and culminating in 1071 with the conquest of Bari, that ejected Byzantium from Italy.

Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . .

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Italy — • In ancient times Italy had several other names: it was called Saturnia, in honour of Saturn; Enotria, wine producing land; Ausonia, land of the Ausonians; Hesperia, land to the west (of Greece); Tyrrhenia, etc. The name Italy, which seems to… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Italy —    Italy became a fully unified state only after 1870. To this point Italy had been divided into numerous medieval states that lost their independence in the early modern period. When Napoleon crossed the Alps seeking military glory, he brought… …   Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914

  • Italy — es el nombre en inglés de Italia y también puede referirse a: Italy (Nueva York), pueblo ubicado en el condado de Yates en el estado estadounidense de Nueva York. Italy (Texas), pueblo ubicado en el condado de Ellis en el estado estadounidense de …   Wikipedia Español

  • Italy — (englisch für Italien) steht für folgende US amerikanische Gemeinden: Italy (New York) im Yates County im Bundesstaat New York Italy (Texas) im Ellis County im Bundesstaat Texas Siehe auch:  Wiktionary: Italy – Bedeutungserklärungen,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Italy — Italy, TX U.S. town in Texas Population (2000): 1993 Housing Units (2000): 731 Land area (2000): 1.793563 sq. miles (4.645306 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.793563 sq. miles (4.645306 sq. km)… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Italy, TX — U.S. town in Texas Population (2000): 1993 Housing Units (2000): 731 Land area (2000): 1.793563 sq. miles (4.645306 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.793563 sq. miles (4.645306 sq. km) FIPS code …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Italy — from L. Italia, from Gk. Italia, perhaps from an alteration of Oscan Viteliu Italy, but originally only the southwestern point of the peninsula, traditionally from Vitali, name of a tribe that settled in Calabria, whose name is perhaps somehow… …   Etymology dictionary

  • Italy — [it′ l ē] [L Italia, altered, prob. by Greeks living in S Italy < earlier (prob. Oscan) Víteliú; orig. used only of the SW point of the peninsula] country in S Europe, mostly on a peninsula extending into the Mediterranean & including Sicily,… …   English World dictionary

  • Italy — /it l ee/, n. a republic in S Europe, comprising a peninsula S of the Alps, and Sicily, Sardinia, Elba, and other smaller islands: a kingdom 1870 1946. 57,534,088; 116,294 sq. mi. (301,200 sq. km). Cap.: Rome. Italian, Italia. * * * Italy… …   Universalium

  • Italy — Italia redirects here. For other uses, see Italia (disambiguation). This article is about the republic. For other uses, see Italy (disambiguation). Italian Republic …   Wikipedia

  • ITALY — Jews have lived in Italy without interruption from the days of the Maccabees until the present, through a period of 21 centuries. Although they were never subjected to general expulsion, there were frequently partial ones. They often enjoyed good …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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